Biomass: The striped bass female spawning stock biomass (the population of females that are age 4 and up) along the Atlantic coast has declined since 2004 and was estimated at 129 million pounds in 2015, according to the 2015 Atlantic striped bass stock assessment update. A period of strong recruitment (number of age 1 fish entering the population) along the Atlantic coast that occurred from 1993 to 2004 was followed by lower recruitment from 2005 through 2011. 2012 recruitment was high due to a strong year-class in 2011, but recruitment in 2013 then fell to the second lowest level since 1982. Recruitment increased the next two years to the seventh highest on record in 2015.
Fishing and habitat: Striped bass are one of the species most sought-after by recreational anglers around the Bay. Hook-and-line is the primary gear used by recreational anglers, which has limited or no effect on habitat. From 2005-14, recreational harvest along the Atlantic coast averaged 26.2 million pounds. Recreational landings for striped bass make up roughly 75-80% of the coastal landings.
Commercial fishermen harvest striped bass with a variety of gear including gill nets, pound nets, haul seines, and hook-and-line. From 2005-14, commercial harvest averaged 6.7 milion pounds. Approximately 59% of commercial harvest along the Atlantic coast is from the Chesapeake Bay jurisdictions.
By-catch: By-catch varies depending upon the gear used. Discard mortality in the recreational sector is also highly variable between years but averages about 8% mortality of released fish.
Aquaculture: Striped bass are grown in many aquaculture operations around the United States. In 2005, almost 60% of all striped bass sold in the United States were grown in aquaculture. Aquaculture for hybrid striped bass (a cross between white bass and striped bass) began in 1986, and production peaked in the early 2000s. In the Chesapeake Bay region, aquaculture has a number of potential benefits for striped bass: more readily available seafood, greater economic development, and reduced pressure on the wild stock of striped bass as well as the species on which they prey.
Science and Management
Striped bass are managed directly by the state jurisdictions—the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Virginia Marine Resource Commission, and Potomac River Fisheries Commission—through the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC).
Historically, the fishery for striped bass was one of the most important on the Atlantic coast. Overfishing and poor environmental conditions led to the collapse of the fishery in the 1980s. Through management coordinated by the ASMFC, and the dedication of commercial and recreational fishermen, the stock was rebuilt and was considered to be restored as of 1995.
There is also concern regarding the nutritional needs of striped bass. Studies are being conducted to evaluate prey availability and what relation, if any, it might have to the prevalance of disease in the striped bass population.
Life History and Habitat
Life history, including information on habitat, growth, feeding, and reproduction of a species, is important because it affects how a fishery is managed. Researchers have determined that female striped bass reach sexual maturity between the ages of four and eight. Using this information, managers set the biomass target and threshold for this species based upon female spawning stock biomass—the amount of sexually mature females in the striped bass population.
Geographic range: Along the Atlantic Coast, the striped bass ranges from the St. Lawrence River in Canada to St. John's River in Florida. Striped bass have been successfully introduced in numerous inland lakes and reservoirs and to the Pacific coast.
Habitat: Striped bass larvae and postlarvae drift downstream toward nursery areas located in river deltas and the inland portions of the coastal sounds and estuaries. Juveniles typically remain in estuaries for two to four years and then migrate out to the Atlantic Ocean. Striped bass spend the majority of their adult life in coastal estuaries or the ocean. Important wintering grounds are located from Cape Henry, Virginia, south to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.
Life Span: Striped bass are a long-lived species; they can live roughly 30 years.
Food: During different stages in their life cycle, striped bass feed on zooplankton, fish larvae, insects, worms, amphipods, Bay anchovy, spot, menhaden, herring, shad, white perch, and yellow perch. The breadth of what they eat highlights their importance in the Chesapeake’s food web.
Growth Rate: Growth rates are variable, depending on a combination of season, location, age, sex, and competition. Growth is more rapid during the second and third years of life, before striped bass reach sexual maturity, than during later years. After age four, growth may be 2.5 to 3 inches a year until age eight. Starting at age four, females grow faster than males. Growth occurs between April and October.
Maximum Size: Striped bass generally grow to lengths of up to 59 inches and weights of 55 to 77 pounds. The largest striped bass on record is a 125-pound female caught off North Carolina in 1891. In the Chesapeake Bay, the largest striped bass is just under 68 pounds.
Reproduction: Striped bass are anadromous, meaning they live in the ocean but return to freshwater to spawn. Males mature between the ages of two and four; females mature between the ages of four and eight. Mature female striped bass produce large quantities of eggs, which are fertilized by mature males in riverine spawning areas. While developing, the fertilized eggs drift with the downstream currents and eventually hatch into larvae. The larvae and post-larvae begin feeding on microscopic animals during their downstream journey. After their arrival in the nursery areas, located in river deltas and the inland portions of coastal sounds and estuaries, they mature into juveniles. Striped bass typically spawn from April to June, as they migrate into fresh or brackish water.
In general, the Chesapeake Bay spawning areas produce the majority of coastal migratory striped bass (70-90%), with significant contributions from the Delaware River and Hudson River stocks.
To monitor the reproductive success of striped bass, scientists take annual seine net samples in rivers used for spawning the in the Chesapeake Bay. The average number of young-of-the-year striped bass in each seine haul is known as the juvenile abundance index. The abundance indices developed in Maryland and Virginia track how the striped bass year-classes vary each year, and help scientists evaluate the health of the striped bass stock. These indices can also help managers predict future recruitment success into the fishery.
Migrations: Striped bass migrate north and south seasonally and ascend to rivers to spawn in the spring. Males in the Chesapeake Bay may forego coastal migrations and remain in the Bay.
Predators: Predators of small (juvenile) striped bass include bluefish, weakfish, cod, and silver hake. Adult striped bass have few predators, with the possible exception of seals and sharks.
Commercial and Recreational Fishing Interest: Both
Distinguishing Characteristics: Striped bass have full bodies with long horizontal black lines.
Role in the Ecosystem
Striped bass are important predators in coastal and marine ecosystems. The Maryland Department of Natural Resources is using resident striped bass (those that live in the Chesapeake Bay year-round) as an indicator species for forage in the Maryland portion of the Bay. Maryland DNR has been developing an approach that combines available information on striped bass nutritional status, diet, relative prey abundance, and prey-predator ratios to evaluate foraging success of striped bass in Maryland's portion of the Chesapeake as part of a Federal Aid to Sportfishing Grant.
Did You Know?
Updated March 2017